The name Burgas comes from the Greek word “pyrgos” (Greek: Πύργος), meaning “tower” or “fortress”. Burgas is the biggest city in South-East Bulgaria – hometown and native place of famous poets, composers, singers, actors, producers, painters, photographers and sportsmen. Burgas is situated in the westernmost point of the bay of the same name and in the eastern part of the Burgas plain which is located to the east of the Upper Thracian Plain. Burgas is located at 389km of Sofia, 272km of Plovdiv and 350km of Istambul. To the west, south and north the city is surrounded by the Burgas Lakes – Vaya, Atanasovsko and Mandrensko which are home to several hundred bird species. Pan-European corridor 8 passes through the city. Joan Ekzarh, one of Bulgarian pre-Renaissance writers wrote that “The Sea is what brings together all that is far away”. This maxim valid for all one is worth and today. The increasing number of the population, the better conditions for rest and business prove the increasing interest to the town. One of the biggest airports and the biggest cargo harbor in the country are located in Burgas. The town is an important centre for the sea tourism with plenty of facilities and transport connections to the resorts on the South Black Sea coast. The resort complex is enriched by the presence of the Burgas Mineral water baths /around 15 km from the town/ which is one of the most ancient Bulgarian balneology centers. The town of Burgas is situated on the Black Sea Coast, by the Burgas day, on a flat plate. It lies at an avarage elevation of 17 m above the sea level. The climate is moderately continental with a clearly expessed sea influence. summer is ussualy pleasant and fresh due to the permanent breezes. During the summer air temperatures in the daytime average 26,40C, and that of the seawater is 24,70C. The number of sunny days inthe summer varies between 24 and 27 per month, with an average of the 10-11 hours of sunshine per day. Winter is mild, mostly withhout any snow. During the winter season the average air temperatures is 4,60C, and tahat of the water is 7,40C. Due to the sea influence, autumns here are long and significantly warmer than in inland regions, while springs tend to be cold and arriving a month later. History information The favourable living conditions on this fertile plain, close to the sea, have brought people to this region from early antiquity. the earliest signs of life date back to the Bronze Age and the early Iron Age. The region of Burgas is rich in archaeological finds, relating to the thracian period (4th c B.C.). The name of Burgas derives from the latin word “burgos”, meaning a tower. Local legends speak of a roman travel post, which used to lie in the area of today’s Burgas Port. 15 centuries later, then under the name of Pirgos, the settlement was mentioned in the works of the Byzantine poet, Manuel Phil. in 18th c. Burgas was the largest port, south of the Balkan range. The first map, showing the outline plan of Burgas dates from 1854. The first Bulgarian school and an orthodox church were opened in 1868. On 6th Feb 1878 Burgas was liberated from ottoman rule by a contingent lead by Colonel Lermontov, brother to the great Russian poet, Mikhail lermontov. the first city Hall was founded in 7th Feb 1878. A public library was opened in 1888 and three years later, the first outline city plan of Burgas was approved .Over the first few decades of 20th c the town underwent some fast industrilization. The beginning of an unprecedented of reading halls (cultural centers), an archaeological society, a town museum, and the opening of the High School of Mechanics and Technology. A new boost to industrilization was given by the axpansion and modernization of the town port, the airport construction, and the building of the Oil refinery, the largest one on the Balkans. Contemporary Burgas At the turn of 21st c. Burgas was a regional and municipal center, as well as the fourth largest town in Bulgaria, with a population of 229 740 inhabitants. Burgas is rated second among Bulgarian administrative districts in its industrial potential. Over 20,000 companies have been registered here, while unemployed is the lowest in the country – 4,3%. Burgas is in important industrial, commercial, transport and tourist center . The largest oil refinery on the Balkans – Lukoil Neftochim EAD – operates from here. The Burgas production palette is richly diverse in colour – fuels and synthetic fibres, ships cables and conductors, railway carriages, fans, construction materials, fish tins, vegetable oils, confectionary, biscuits, knitwear and clothing. Burgas has in the country with the only oil terminal south of the Balkan range, with a well-developed railway and road network. The airport boasts the best atmospheric conditions on the Balkan Peninsula and is the only one adapted for receiving supersonic planes. Since 1989 the Duty Free Zone of Burgas has been in operation. Burgas in itself is a tourist center, but also a starting point for visiting the Black Sea resort of Sunny Beach. The holiday villages of Elenite and Duni, the museum-towns of Nesebar and Sozopol, the Ropotamo Reserve and the Strandja Nature Park. Structure of the Economics Complex The covered period after 1989 can be described with vital changes. There are 20 000 firms registered on the territory of the area, including Burgas – 19 295. 30 of the companies are with state property, 15 – with public property, 58 are mixed and the rest are Bulgarian private companies. The companies in the private sector are distributed mainly in the following branches: Industry; Construction; transport; Trade. The extent, to which the production funds are used, is the lowest in the industry (around 50%). The extent of wearing long term material assets in the industry is around 55%. The district can be described as one of the highest concentrations of fundamental production funds in the country. This is due to the correspondence between the local potential and the realized economic leader and important center for the development in the area of 150 km around it. There is a conflict because of incompatibility between the basic economic functions. The development of a number of industrial activities is in contradiction with the development of tourism and protection of the environment. There is a pressure in the balance of resources in the district because of the strong dominance of the heavy industry. Burgas Sea Garden Sea garden in Bourgas is situated above the beach along the central beach. It has a total area of about 72 000 sq.m. and has a length of more than 5 km. The park is planted with large trees and shrubs, forming shady places to walk along the alleys. In green lawns there are scattered stone sculptures, and busts of famous writers, actors and personalities. Particularly impressed by Pushkin monument. The park is one of the places in Bourgas. Across the sea garden of pretty places there are children playgrounds with slides, swings and inflatable castles, and men dressed as clowns handing out balloons to children. Also, the municipality took care, being built in several places fitness equipment are available free of charge. The garden has many large and small lanes for walking, are beautifully covered with colorful flowers. They create a pleasant sensation with their scent, beauty, and charge a person with positive thoughts and feelings. In the sea garden is open-air theater on whose stage competitions are held for several songs. Nearby are two night clubs and many cafes offer hot drinks and food for the tired after a long walk bystanders. However there are several places located in the summer small booths where you can buy a delicious ice cream, nuts and boiled corn. Since the park is situated above the beach, has an incredibly beautiful sea and beach. Inside this garden over the sea coast has benches where you can enjoy the beautiful scenery. It also sees the bridge, port, and in clear weather is visible and the beach of Sarafovo. The park is visited daily by many residents and guests of the city in a warm and sunny weather is filled with a lot of children and adults who came here to finally shake off their problems. Sea Garden is easily accessible. It originates from the edge of one of the main streets in town. In its vicinity there is a bus a bus stop and parking. Burgas Lighthouse Port of Burgas is established pursuit to the Decree for Construction, signed by Prince Ferdinand I. The opening ceremony has been held on 18 May 1903 and since this moment the port is considered as open for commercial shipping. Few years before, in 1899, the first Bulgarian port lighthouse – the white lighthouse of Burgas, has been put on. The first Burgas smuggler – Sabi Denev is the author of the model. Alley dedicated to the heroes of the Bulgarian national Revival The central area of the sea garden was intended to be a cultural-historic memorial to the great Bulgarian national heroes. The great ideologists of Bulgarian Revival: Hadji Dimitur, Stefan Karadja, Dobri Chintulov, Lyuben Karavelov, Nicola Kofardjiev, Todor Grudov, Atanas Man-tchev, V. Zografov, priest Sava Katrafilov and G.S. Rakovski obtained their memorial busts during the 1920’s and 1930’s. This is the place where the citizens of Burgas lay wreaths to express their appreciations to the most remarkable figures that died for the freedom of Bul-garia – Hristo Botev and Vasil Levski. Monument “Alyosha” Aliosha – monument of the Russian soldier is a favourite place for a walk in the city of Burgas. It is built in 1953 as a monument dedicated to victims of World War II. Authors of this project are the architect Mihail Milkov and sculptors Vassil Radoslavov and Anna Milkova. “The Gramophon” The sculptural composition “Gramophone” is a creation of Mr. Russi Stoyanov, a talented artist from Bourgas. It marks the end of the oldest largo of Burgas – Bogoridi Street that today represents an architectural monument and a gateway to the numerous night attractions of the seaside town. Archaeological Exposition The museum displays archaeological finds from prehistoric times through to the end of the fourteenth century found in the Region of Burgas. The artifacts are related to the ancient cities of Thrace, old Greek colonies and local Province of the Roman Empire. The unique exhibits presenting the history of Black Sea Shipping; gold jewelry, art objects and pottery from the Thracian culture are the highlights of the exposition. Ethnographic Exposition The biggest Ethnographic Exposition in South-East Bulgaria occupies a beautiful house from the middle of the 19th century, preserved in its original shape and with its original furniture. The artifacts on display illustrate the occupations of the local population, its way of life, building architecture, household goods, festivals and customs. Here the visitors can see the most attractive collection of Bulgarian Traditional costumes representing all ethnographic groups in the Burgas region, including the clothing of the Bulgarian fugitives from the land that nowadays belong to Greece and Turkey. Here are also displayed unique ritual costumes from the 19th century, illustrating various rites and celebrations, typical for Burgas region only: ritual costumes of “Nestinarka”, “Enyov’s wife”, “Lazarka” and wedding clothing. Historical Exposition This is the right place to learn more about the past and the present history of Burgas – City and Region, which is presented lively with photos, documents and other original exhibits. Another Highlight in the Historical Exposition is the collection of Bulgarian Renaissance icons, old printed books, manu-scripts and 19th century church plate. The Historical Exposition is also so preferred place for exclusive guest-exhibitions. The Pier In 1936, the pier was built next to the new municipal sea baths. It was constructed from steel and had wooden trimmer joists for the platform. A special stone staircase was connecting the pier with the seaside casino and the park alley. During the 80’s a new massive pier – quay, replaced the old wooden pier, which nowadays is a favourite place for citizens and guests of Burgas to take a stroll. Every year on January the 6th, a church service is carried out celebrating the Christian holiday Epiphany. Traditionally, the Bishop would throw the cross into the sea water, for which brave swimmers compete to obtain. Opera House Burgas Opera House – Burgas Philharmonic Society was established by decree of the Council of Ministers in 2000. It combines two major music institutes – Burgas State Opera and Philharmonic Society – Burgas. The Burgas Philharmonic existed already in 1947 as a State Institute. For the first time almost all works of Bulgarian composers have been presented on the stage of Opera House BurgasHouse BurgasHou. The mixed choir in Burgas was formed in 1972, when the Burgas Opera became a government institute. The choir at the Opera – Philharmonic Society – Burgas participate in the implementation of operas, operettas and children’s performances. International exhibition-bazaar “Flora” The most remarkable place in this part of the Sea Garden is the Annual Inter-national Exhibition of Flowers “Flora”. At this location in the past was the city greenhouse, specially glazed for cultivation of exotic tropical plants. The first “Flora” opened in 1981. The annual exhibition includes a great diversity of different types of flowers and flower combinations, potted plants, decorative plants and planting materials from producers all over the world. Summer Theatre The Summer Theatre built in 1958 was intended to develop further the Sea garden as a place for amusement and relaxation. Architect Mirinchev, author of the project choose the classic antique style for his creation. The realization of this project in the 1960’s became reality with the voluntary participation of Burgas citizens. Summer Theatre is a stage of many cultural events among which are the famous competition for the Bulgarian author’s song “Burgas and the Sea” and the oldest International Folklore Festival in Bulgaria.